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Institute of Modern Physics,CAS

Contact: RongXinjuan

Phone: +86 931-4969207

Email: rongxinjuan@impcas.ac.cn

Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL)
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       The Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), also called Lanzhou Heavy Ion Accelerator, is the largest heavy ion research facility in China and one of the few large-scale full-ion accelerating systems in the world, which can accelerate all ions (from hydrogen to uranium) to high energy. It is mainly composed of a superconducting ECR ion source, a Sector Focused Cyclotron (SFC), a Sector-Separated Cyclotron (SSC), a Cooler-Storage main Ring (CSRm) and a Cooler-Storage experimental Ring (CSRe) of the newly-built synchrotron (CSR), two radioactive beam lines (RIBLL1 & RIBLL2), and some experimental devices, etc. It is used to conduct researches in heavy ion physics and the interdisciplinary subjects.
      The SFC is the upgrated one of the 1.5 meter classical cyclotron constructed in the early 1960s, and it can be used separately to perform low energy heavy ion researches in China.
      In December 1988, Lanzhou Heavy Ion Accelerating System (SFC+SSC), designed and constructed by the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IMP), was completed and put into operation. In August 1991, the National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou was approved by the State Planning Committee and opened to public.
      At present, HIRFL is running more than 7000 hours every year, providing more than 4000 hours for experiments. Now, there are 20 experimental terminals running of HIRFL.Please read the terminals introductions for more informations .

Equipment

  • X-ray Spectroscopy at Internal Target of CSRe

          The CSRe internal-target is composed of a cluster-jet source, a collision chamber and a jet-catcher. The target gas which is pre-cooled to its dew-point temperatures is jetted through a Laval nozzle. During the adiabatic expansion, it is further cooled below its dew-point to reduce its transverse velocity and to grow clusters. The cluster-jet is collimated to a diameter of 3~5 mm by a four-stage collimator, bombarded by the ion-beam in the collision chamber, and finally collected by the catcher. It is able to provide nitrogen, neon, argon, krypton and xenon jet-targets of about 1E13 atoms/cm2 and the hydrogen jet-target of about 1E12 atoms/cm2, in a background vacuum of 5E-9 Pa. Several beryllium windows, as well as x-ray detectors are equipped to the collision chamber. X-ray spectroscopy studies in high-energy, highly charged ions with atoms collisions, such as the radiative electron capture and the multiple inner-shell ionization processes, are carried out based on this set-up.

  • CSRe DR-Spectrometer

          DR is a two-step process. In the first step, a free electron is radiationlessly captured by an ion Aq+, the excess energy is used to excite a bound electron in the ion core simultaneously, by which a doubly excited intermediate state of the ion is formed. In the second step, the intermedia state stabilizes via emission photons.
          The experimental cooler storage ring (CSRe) equipped with a 300 kV electron cooler (EC-300) which provides a broad detuning energy range of ±30 kV corresponding to relative energy at the center of mass frame to be ~1500 eV. By scanning the electron energy at the cathode of electron cooler and detecting the recombined ion beams after the first dipole magnet downstream the electron cooler EC-300, with further data analysis, the DR spectrum will be obtained. DR resonant technique at the CSRe can be used as a precision spectroscopy tool to test QED theory in strong field, study electron-electron correlation effects, and provide the opportunity for the DR spectroscopy research on radioactive ions.

  • Common Experimental Terminal

          Common Experimental Terminal composed of electron cooler and detectors is one of the experimental platform in CSRe. CSRe is a storage ring with circumference of 128.8m, The maximum magnetic rigidity is 9.6Tm. It can be used to accumulate and cool ion beams for internal target experiments. The electron cooler installed in straight section is used to provide electrons up to energy of 300keV and current of 3.0A. The detectors can be used to measure the products generated by electron-ion collision.

  • CSRe Atomic Mass Spectrometer

          CSRe Atomic Mass Spectrometer (CSRe-AMS) is dedicated to precision mass measurements of short-lived nuclides. It was established firstly in 2007 and has been updated gradually along the following years. Currently there are 3 time-of-flight (TOF) detectors to measure the revolutions times of ions stored in CSRe. The data acquisition system consists of two digital oscilloscope with sampling rates of 80GHz and 100GHz, respectively. A parallel computations based on GPU has been set up for fast on-line data analysis.
          In the past few years, a series of mass-measurement experiments have been performed using isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in CSRe. Meanwhile, a new IMS scheme with double-TOF system is under test. The Schottky mass spectrometry based on beam cooling is also under development.

  • CSRm DR-Spectrometer

          Dielectronic recombination (DR) is a two-step process. In the first step, a free electron is radiationlessly captured by an ion Aq+, the excess energy is used to excite a bound electron in the ion core simultaneously, by which a doubly excited intermediate state of the ion is formed. In the second step, the intermedia state stabilizes via emission photons.
          The main cooler storage ring (CSRm) equipped with a 35 kV electron cooler (EC-35) which provides a broad detuning energy range of ±3 kV corresponding to relative energy at the center of mass frame to be ~100 eV. By scanning the electron energy at the cathode of electron cooler and detecting the recombined ion beams after the first dipole magnet downstream the electron cooler EC-35, the DR spectrum can be measured. DR spectrum can be used to investigate the atomic structure and plasma rate coefficients related to astrophysics.

  • Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure

          The gas-filled recoil separator SHANS (Spectrometer for Heavy Atom and nuclear Structure) was located at the second terminal (TR2) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The separator consists of four magnets in a QDQQ configuration, where D and Q denote the dipole and quadrupole magnets respectively. Working with filled helium gas, the separator has been equipped with rotating target system, beam modulation device, multi-wire proportional counter, position sensitive silicon detection array, digital data acquisition system, etc.
          The separator is an useful tool to separate and study the heavy nuclei produced in fusion reactions. Due to the average equilibrium charge states of heavy ions can be formed in rarefied gas, the evaporation residues recoiled from the target were separated in flight from the primary beam by the separator and then implanted into the focal plane detection system. Subsequently the decay properties of the products were measured in the case of low background.
          The separator can be used in the synthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei, the study on the mechanism of fusion-evaporation reaction, decay spectroscopy of exotic nuclei and radio-nuclear chemistry, etc.
          

  • Single Event Effect Test Beamline

           The Single Event Effect Experiment terminal (TR5) is mainly used in the single event effect tests of electronic devices. Many sensitive large scale integrators have been completed or evaluated before used in space missions or after developed under National Science and Technology Major Project in this terminal. The researchers of IMP have cooperated with more than 50 domestics as well as international institutions.
           The single event effect experiment terminal can be operated either in vacuum or in air. In addition, a sample can be transformed from atmosphere to vacuum within 2 mins by a vacuum pre-pumped auxiliary target chamber. There are series of detectors for beam monitoring in a wide range of ion fluence. Due to a beam scan system, the terminal may provide an uniform region of 60×60 mm2 for ion irradiation. It can remotely carry out the positioning of samples, control of detectors, data acquisition and regulation of beam spot.

  • The 1st Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou

           The 1st Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL1) is composed of production, separation, identification and focusing systems with a total length of 35 meters. It was designed as an antisymmetric spectrometer with a double achromatic structure by integrating the advantages of 4 running radioactive beam facilities at intermediate energies in the world. RIBLL1 improves the identification ability of radioactive beams with a mass resolution (A/ΔA) greater than 200, a 10% momentum acceptance, a maximum magnetic rigidity of 4.2Tm and the ability of providing more than one thousand short live ion beams. RIBLL1 have provided a lot of radioactive ion beams for the domestic and abroad users to carrying the experiments. A series of important achievements have been obtained, such as finding out the important evidences of halo structure of several radioactive nuclei, discovering the 4He+8He cluster structure of 12Be for the first time, studying the β-delayed spectra of 18,21N, the mechanism of di-proton emission of 28P and 28S, the production mechanism of 40Ar fragmentation and the interesting behavior of elastic scattering of the proton drip-line nuclei 8B and 9C.

  • CSRm External Target Experimental Hall

           The Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) physics is one of the most active fields in nuclear physics researches today, and the External Target Experimental Hall (CSRm-ET3), which is downstream of the second Radioactive Ion Beam Line in Lanzhou (RIBLL2), is a very powerful tool for improving the research works in this field. The CSRm-ET3 is equipped with many different kinds of high performance detectors and associated electronics/data acquisition system, and all the products including charged particles, neutrons and γ-rays can be measured simultaneously with high precision. The CSRm and RIBLL2 can provide stable or RI beams with the energy of several hundreds AMeV, and the kinematically complete measurements for reaction products can be realized in the CSRm-ET3, which allows the studies for many important topics, such as the properties of short-lived isotopes, the property of nuclear matter and the exploration of new reaction mechanism.

  • Lanzhou Interdisciplinary Heavy Ion Microbeam

          The high energy heavy ion microbeam facility was constructed at the Lanzhou Interdisciplinary Heavy Ion Microbeam(TR0) of the HIRFL accelerator, which can focus ions to micrometer scale in air with energies of several MeV/u up to 80 MeV/u. This microbeam facility bends the beam by two 45° dipole magnets down to the basement and the beam is focused into air by a triplet quadrupole magnets. The facility has a horizontal experimental platform for in-air irradiation and beam analysis, and spectrum acquisition, raster irradiation, targeting irradiation and microscopic positioning system has been established at the facility.
          The microbeam facility has been used for interdisciplinary studies with Carbon to Krypton ion beam in single ion hit, single event effect analysis, ion induced charge collection, living cell irradiation and live cell imaging, ion beam fault injection attack, micro-irradiation in cell, mouse, polymer, crystal and microelectronics chip. International and domestic users who want to apply beam time at the facility please contact Guanghua Du at (gh_du@impcas.ac.cn).
          

  • High Temperature Material Irradiation Instrument

          The High Temperature Material Irradiation Instrument (TR3) installed on the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL), which consists of the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC) and the Seprated Sector Cyclotron (SSC). It can supply a wide range of temperature and stress simultaneously for scientific research of advanced nuclear materials under ion irradiation.
          The parameters of ion-beam supplied by HIRFL-TR3 show in below:
           ion: p-U
           ion energy range: 9.5~100 MeV/u
           ion energy divergence: ≤1×10-3
           continuous wave beam current:0.1~3.5 eμA
           with X-Y directions beam electromagnetic scanning system
          The parameters of HIRFL-TR3 instrument show in below:
           vacuum: ≤ 1×10-5 Pa
           X-Y directions beam electromagnetic scanning frequency: 0~100 Hz
           irradiation temperature: room temperature~1200℃, temperature stability:±2℃
           pull/push stress loading system: maximum load is 1200 N, loading accuracy is 1 N
           with multi-station rotary sample stage in room temperature irradiation chamber
           irradiation area: 40×40 mm2

  • 核化学实验终端

          核化学实验终端(SFC-T3)是在扇聚焦回旋加速器(SFC)上建成的实验终端,SFC-T3主要通过低能核反应进行核化学相关研究工作。SFC-T3已有的特色装置是基于“氦喷嘴传输技术+转轮收集探测装置”的重核在线分离鉴别系统和基于“在线等温气相色谱装置”的单原子气相化学测量系统。SFC-T3可开展的研究工作主要有重元素和超重元素的合成及其气相化学性质研究、超重元素的同族元素液相化学现在研究、低能核反应快化分离研究以及放射化学分离相关的重离子反应研究等。

  • Irradiation Terminal for Nuclear track membrane

          Irradiation Terminal for Nuclear track membrane (TR6) is specially used for radiation production of nuclear track membrane. It mainly consists of six parts: vacuum system, scanning magnet, scanning power supply, membrane transmission device, beam detector and automatic control. 6 layers of film can be irradiated under atmospheric conditions at one time, and the maximum speed is 2 meters per minute. The automatic control system can adjust the feeding speed according to the beam intensity, so as to achieve the uniform irradiation of the nuclear track membrane. At present, TR6 completed a number of production tasks, provide hundreds of thousands of square meters, including medical infusion membrane and anti-counterfeit membrane. The products has uniform pore size, the taper is very small. Product performance meets the medical filtering, food, lithium ion battery and other precision filter requirements. The design index and production capacity of the whole system have reached the international advanced level.

  • Nuclear Data Experimental Terminal

           In 2011, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) launched a Strategic Priority Research Program “the Future Advanced Nuclear Fission Energy—ADS Transmutation System.” The nuclear data at intermediate and at higher energies based on nuclear reaction information is fundamental requirement for spallation target design. Based on Cooler Storage Ring of Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL-CSR), the Nuclear Data Experimental Terminal (CSRm-ET2) was established. The nuclear data measurement facility for ADS spallation target has been constructed, which provides a very important platform for the experimental measurements of spallation reactions at CSRm-ET2. The facility consists of water-bath neutron activation measurement setup, light charged particles spectrometer, neutron time-of-flight spectrometer and PISA detection system.
           The experimental studies for intermediate and high nuclear reaction, ion beam radiation and ion beam photograph can be carried out at CSRm-ET2. Several experiments about spallation neutron energy spectrum measurements, neutronic performance studies for spallation target and proton beam photograph have been performed.
          

  • LBE Corrosion & Ion Irradiation Synergistic Effect Instrument

          The LBE Corrosion & Ion Irradiation Synergistic Effect Instrument (SFC-T2) installed on the Sector Focusing Cyclotron (SFC) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility of Lanzhou (HIRFL), which consists of the LBE Corrosion & Ion Irradiation Synergistic Effect Instrument and the In-beam Creep Test Apparatus. It can supply a wide range of temperature, stress, creep and LBE medium environment simultaneously for scientific research of advanced nuclear materials under ion irradiation.
          The parameters of ion-beam supplied by SFC-T2 show in below:
           ion: p-U
           ion energy range: 0.08~8.5MeV/u
           ion energy divergence: ≤1×10-3
           continuous wave beam current:0.1~15 eμA
           with X-Y directions beam electromagnetic scanning system
           with a ion energy degrader system
          The parameters of SFC-T2 instrument show in below:
           vacuum: ≤ 1×10-4 Pa
           medium: liquid metal such as PbBi, LiPb, Ga and water, water vapour, supercritical water
           medium temperature: 200~600℃
           velocity of medium flow: 0~2.0 m/s
           irradiation area: 15×15 mm2
          The parameters of In-beam Creep Test Apparatus show in below:
           vacuum: ≤ 1×10-5 Pa
           irradiation temperature: room temperature~1200℃, temperature stability:±2℃
           pull/push stress loading system: maximum load is 1000 N, loading accuracy is 0.1 N
           online displacement measurement system: the measurement accuracy is 2μm
           with multi-station rotary sample stage in room temperature irradiation chamber
           irradiation area: 15×15 mm2

  • Radiation Terminal of Biology and Shallow-seated Tumor Therapy

          Radiation Terminal of Biology and Shallow-seated Tumor Therapy (TR4) is composed of irradiation equipment, sample changer, beam monitoring system, control system and radiation protection system. It is possible to use this facility to conduct mutation breeding induced by ion beams with different physical parameters (ion species, energy, linear energy transfer and dose rates, etc.) and the fundamental researches of carbon ion tumor therapy. The TR4 terminal is based semi-automatic platform which can perform irradiations with accurate dose and efficient sample changing. Not only does TR4 terminal perform the clinical studies of shallow-seated tumor therapy, but it can also satisfy the irradiation requirements of various biological samples (the seeds, tissue and shoots of plant; mammalian cells and small animals; the suspension and spores of microbes).

  • High Energy Irradiation Terminal for Deep-seated Tumor Therapy and Bio-medical Research

           The high energy irradiation terminal for deep-seated tumor therapy and bio-medical research (CSRm-ET1) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) is a horizontal beam line for irradiation with charged particles and equipped with both passive and active beam delivery systems. All types of ions from proton to uranium can be provided in this terminal and the size of irradiation field with uniformity better than 90% is up to 20cm×20cm.
          Researches on heavy ion radiobiological effect, heavy ion therapeutic technique and relevant mechanism, hazard and evaulation of space heavy ions, and heavy ion radiaiton effect can be conducted in the CSRm-ET1 terminal. Besides, pre-clinical trial study with heavy ions is able to be performed in the terminal. Therefore, the CSRm-ET1 terminal at HIRFL is a multi-functional tool for interdisciplinary research including biology, medicine, materials, and so on.

  • The Terminal of Atomic Collision Physic

          The Terminal of Atomic Collision Physics (TR1) is established for fundamental researches on few-body dynamic in high collision energy regime. There the reaction microscope is developed and, by which, the fragments (electrons and recoils) of the target atom/molecule in collisions with high energy ions can be measured in coincidence with each other. From the obtained 3/4-fold coincident data, fully differential cross sections of the collision processes can be extracted for ion-induced capture/ionization/excitation collisions. Different theories on collision dynamic can be tested in the very detailed manner. For instance, fully differential cross sections can provide the most stringent test to relativistic theories of quantum theory, the local-reality of quantum bodies and interference effects which is deep into the quantum heart.

  • In-Beam Experiment Beamline

          The decay of the excited states of the atomic nucleus is almost always companied by gamma radiation. Large gamma detection platform, which could give the most important observables of the nucleus, is proved to be one of the essential equipments of the laboratory around the world. A new detector array consisting of 32 detection element of the early phase, including 16 normal HPGe detectors, 8 Clover type HPGe detectors and 8 LaBr detectors, was constructed at Institute of Modern Physics of CAS in the 12th National Five-year period. It is one of the most efficient gamma detector arrays in Asia, with capability of measuring spectroscopy containing lifetime, and sustaining the most frontier nuclear study. In addition, reliable auxiliary equipments such as high speed/capacity electronic, DAQ, and automatic cooling system have been developed for the detector array. The array is currently serving at the TL2 beam line of the HIRFL facility for the in-beam gamma spectroscopy. It could also serve at the RIBLL and SHANS beam line for the study of radioactive and super-heavy nuclei.

  • Mediate-energy Irradiation Terminal

           The Mediate-energy Irradiation Terminal is an experimental terminal located at the Sector Focused Cyclotron (SFC), and is abbreviated to "SFC-T1".
           SFC-T1 has the following three functions. First, the energy degradation function, which enables the dispersion of the kinetic energy of the incident mono-energy heavy ions into several tens of gradually decreasing values. The energy gradient can cause a quasi-uniform depth distribution of defects and implanted atoms in specimens, making possible for precise investigation of changes of microstructures and material properties caused by ion beams. Second, specimen temperature control function. The unit includes a liquid-nitrogen cooling stage and a high-temperature stage (up to 600 degree Celsius), making possible the control of specimen temperature during ion irradiation. The specimen stages also have lift/rotation function enabling irradiation of up to fifteen specimens in a batch. Third, scattered ion beam irradiation function, which enables irradiation to broad doses lower than 1x1011 ions/cm2.
           The researches being carried out at SFC-T1 are in two aspects. First, radiation damage of materials candidate to advanced nuclear power plants. Second, radiation effects of novel photonic / optoelectronic materials.

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